Cover Photo—The Coleopterists Bulletin 71(4)

The December 2017 issue of The Coleopterists Bulletin (vol. 71, no. 4) is hitting mailboxes now, and once again I have the honor of providing the cover photo. This one features an adult of the cactus beetle, Moneilema armata (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on its host, cholla (Opuntia imbricata). I photographed this beetle in June 2014 near Vogel Canyon in Otero Co., Colorado. Cactus beetles are notorious for hiding deep within the mass of spiny stems and branches of their hosts, making long forceps an absolute necessity for collecting them. Occasionally, however, they venture out onto more exposed parts of the plant—in this case, up near the tip of a stem and onto a nearly open flower bud, and the value contrast between the black beetle, green stem, pink flower, gold spines, and blue sky made for a truly lovely composition. If I have only one regret about the photo, it was the stiff southerly wind that kept blowing the beetle’s left antenna and preventing it from matching the perfectly symmetrical arc of the right antenna—a small complaint.

This is another example of the flash-illuminated subject with natural blue sky background technique that I have become so fond of, at least for diurnal insects resting on flowers and foliage. I learned this technique from John Abbott a few years earlier at the inaugural BugShot Workshop in Gray Summit, Missouri (just 15 miles from my home), and it has since become my default background and part of my signature style.

This is the fourth issue of The Coleopterists Bulletin to feature one of my photographs on the cover. The first was the June 2013 (vol. 67, no. 2) issue, featuring the stunning green weevil Eurhinus cf. adonis, and the very next issue (September 2013, vol. 67, no. 3) featured the jewel beetle Chrysobothris octocola. Two years later I had a photo on the cover of the March 2015 (vol. 69, no. 1) issue, a striking red and black longhorned beetle Crossidius coralinus fulgidus.

If you’re not one already, consider becoming a member of The Coleopterists Society (I’ve been one for 36 years now!). Their flagship journal, The Coleopterists Bulletin, is your one-stop shop for all things beetley—a quarterly fix of pure elytral ecstacy! Membership also includes online access to archives of past issues via JSTOR and BioOne.

© Ted C. MacRae 2018

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Posted in Cerambycidae, Coleoptera | Tagged , , | 10 Comments

Ellipsoptera lepida – ghost tiger beetle

In the early 2000s, Chris Brown and I were beginning our general survey of Missouri tiger beetles. Our goal was to characterize the occurrence and distribution of all species within the state. At the time, 22 species were known to occur in Missouri, and our work would uncover the presence of two more—one being a vagrant occurrence of the widespread Cicindelidia trifasciata ascendens (ascendent tiger beetle) (Brown & MacRae 2005); the other being the rare Cylindera celeripes (swift tiger beetle) (MacRae & Brown 2011). Of the species already known from the state, however, some were known from only a few records and hadn’t been seen in the field by either Chris or myself. One such species was Ellipsoptera lepida (ghost tiger beetle), an almost pure white species known to occur in deep, dry sand habitats over most of central North America (Pearson et al. 2015). At that time, I had still seen only the more common species in Missouri, and the combination of its name and unusual, mostly-white color put this species high on my “must see” list.

Ellipsoptera lepida (ghost tiger beetle)

My first experience would come quickly. In June 2001, Chris and I visited a recent addition to Weldon Spring Conservation Area on the north side of the Missouri River in St. Charles Co. called Darst Bottoms. The area at one time was productive farmland, but the “Great Floods” of 1993 and 1995 left deep deposits of sand over the area. While no longer suitable for agriculture, the process of succession allowed valuable wildlife habitat to develop, and the area was purchased and added to the Conservation Area. By the time of our visit in 2001, early succession had resulted in young forests of mostly eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) surrounding a vast central plain of white sand. Chris and I didn’t know what to expect on that first visit, both of us being in the early stages of our survey of Missouri tiger beetles, but we figured we would find something interesting.

Ellipsoptera lepida (ghost tiger beetle)

I still remember the moment I first saw E. lepida and realized what it was. We had already found Cicindela formosa generosa (eastern big sand tiger beetle)—the first time I had seen that species in Missouri outside the southeastern lowlands (we would eventually find it at many sites along the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers and a few smaller interior rivers)—and were searching for additional specimens. We were in a small opening adjacent to the larger central plain when I thought I saw something move near my feet. I stopped to look down but didn’t see anything, so I began walking again while scanning the ground ahead of me. Again, I thought I saw movement nearby and stopped to look, this time pausing a little longer and doing so a little more carefully. That’s when I saw it, and even though I had seen only photographs of the species and museum specimens I recognized it instantly for what it was and yelled out “lepida!” Chris came over to see for himself, and we marveled at the effectiveness of their camouflage—they seemingly were able to disappear right before our eyes even though we were looking right at them.

Sand plain habitat for Ellipsoptera lepida (ghost tiger beetle).

Over the next few years, Chris and I found the species at several sites along or not too distant from the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers—always on sand deposits deep enough to become dry. We never found them in great numbers, sometimes just single individuals while other sand residents were abundant, and not at all sites where we did find more reliable species such as C. f. generosa and C. tranquebarica (oblique-lined tiger beetle). Pearson et al. (2015) mention that despite the broad distribution of this species across central North America that its actual occurrence is rather spotty and localized and that it has disappeared from many sites where it was previously known to occur. This was our experience in Missouri as well, as many of the museum records we had gleaned for the species no longer appeared to support populations of the beetle. This is likely due, at least in part, to the ephemeral nature of the habitats on which the species depends, at least those along the big rivers that are vulnerable to revegetation and succession back to bottomland forest.

Ellipsoptera lepida (ghost tiger beetle)

Of course, all of this occurred long before I took up insect macrophotography in 2009, and while I had managed to photograph most of the tiger beetle species in Missouri in the years that followed, E. lepida was one that I continued to lack. In the summer of 2015 I decided to rectify that situation and, when the time was right, returned to Darst Bottoms in hopes of finding and photographing this species. Imagine my surprise when I hiked into the area and, instead of young cottonwood stands surrounding a vast, barren sand plain, I found mature cottonwood forests surrounding a thickly vegetated sand prairie with only isolated patches of barren sand. Needless to say, with such little suitable habitat for the beetles they were neither abundant nor even common. In fact, the only evidence I found that told me they were still there at all was coyote scat containing unmistakable remains of the adult beetles. Skunked on my first effort, I decided to try another spot where we had seen good populations of the beetle—Overton Bottoms Conservation Area along the Missouri River in Cooper and Monteau Counties in central Missouri, now Overton Bottoms South Unit and part of the Big Muddy National Wildlife Area. Like Darst Bottoms, this area had experienced revegetation and succession in the decade+ since my previous visit; however, unlike the former there still remained a vast central plain that, while vegetated, was sparsely vegetated enough to continue providing suitable habitat for the beetle. It took some work, but I eventually found the beetles localized in one part of the sand plain (see photograph #3), and there were enough of them out at the time of my visit that I succeeded in getting the series of photographs shown in this post.

Ellipsoptera lepida (ghost tiger beetle)

I have fond memories of all 24 tiger beetle species in Missouri—each one presenting a unique collection of experiences that will fuel my love affair with the group for years to come. With E. lepida, the jubilance and excitement of that first, unexpected encounter remains near the top of the list for me.

REFERENCES:

Brown, C. R. & T. C. MacRae. 2005. Occurrence of Cicindela (Cicindelidia) trifasciata ascendens (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) in Missouri. Cicindela 37(1–2):17–19 [pdf].

MacRae, T. C. & C. R. Brown. 2011. Historical and contemporary occurrence of Cylindera (s. str.) celeripes (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindelinae) and implications for its conservation. The Coleopterists Bulletin 65(3):230–241 [pdf].

Pearson, D. L., C. B. Knisley, D. P. Duran & C. J. Kazilek. 2015. A Field Guide to the Tiger Beetles of the United States and Canada. 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press, New York, 264 pp. [Oxford description].

© Ted C. MacRae 2017

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Cicindela scutellaris flavoviridis (chartreuse tiger beetle)

In previous posts I have discussed some Texas subspecies of Cicindela scutellaris (festive tiger beetle) and C. formosa (big sand tiger beetle)—two widespread and geographically variable species that occur broadly across eastern North America and that segregate into several distinctive and geographically restricted subspecies (Pearson et al. 2006). With the former species, I actually found two of its Texas subspecies, the second being C. s. flavoviridis (dubbed the “chartreuse tiger beetle” by Erwin & Pearson, 2008). This subspecies occurs in a narrow band from north-central Texas south to central Texas and apparently does not intergrade with rugata (which I featured previously) to the east (Pearson et al. 2006) and minimally with subspecies lecontei to the north (Vaurie 1950).

Cicindela scutellaris flavoviridis

Cicindela scutellaris flavoviridis

This beautiful subspecies usually lacks maculations, at most possessing two tiny ivory white spots along the outer edge of the elytra, and the shining metallic upper body surface is the most stunning shade of greenish-yellow, or chartreuse, color that I have ever seen. It shares with C. s. rugata a more wrinkled pronotum and smoother head than other C. scutellaris subspecies, but the latter is distinguished by its darker blue to blue-green dorsal coloration. Vaurie (1950) regarded C. s. flavoviridis to be intermediate between rugata and scutellaris but more closely related to the latter due to their shared yellow/coppery reflections on the elytra. Cicindela s. flavoviridis can also be confused with immaculate forms of C. sexguttata (six-spotted tiger beetle), but the latter is less robust with a more tapered posterior, and both sexes of C. sexguttata have a whitish labrum—in all C. scutellaris subspecies only males have a white labrum and females have a dark/black labrum.

Cicindela scutellaris flavoviridis

Cicindela scutellaris flavoviridis

Like all of the other C. scutellaris subspecies, this one occurs in deep, dry sand habitats such as dunes, blowouts, and road cuts. I found this population along a tributary of the Red River known as Cobb Hollow” in Montegue Co., Texas in early October 2015, where they occurred in small numbers on deep sand bars alongside the small creek. I actually made two visits to this site one week apart—failing the first time in my efforts to obtain good, in situ field photographs but succeeding on the second visit.

Cicindela scutellaris flavoviridis

Cicindela scutellaris flavoviridis

I am quite satisfied with these photos, especially the first one above that gives a good lateral view of an adult striking an interesting pose on sloped sand, although I would have liked to have gotten at least one with some foliage in the photo to add a bit of perspective. Nevertheless, having now succeed in photographing the four “western” subspecies of C. scutellaris (rugata and flavoviridis in Texas, nominate scutellaris in the Great Plains, and yampae in northwestern Colorado), I am now motivated to get good photographs of the three “eastern” subspecies: lecontei proper (there are populations in northern Missouri), rugifrons along the North Atlantic coast, and unicolor in the southeastern U.S. (although I have photographed an interesting lecontei × unicolor intergrade population in southern Missouri).

REFERENCES:

Erwin, T. L. & D. L. Pearson. 2008. A Treatise on the Western Hemisphere Caraboidea (Coleoptera). Their classification, distributions, and ways of life. Volume II (Carabidae-Nebriiformes 2-Cicindelitae). Pensoft Series Faunistica 84. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia, 400 pp [Amazon descriptionbook review].

Pearson, D. L., C. B. Knisley & C. J. Kazilek. 2006. A Field Guide to the Tiger Beetles of the United States and Canada. Oxford University Press, New York, 227 pp. [Oxford description].

Vaurie, P. 1950. Four new subspecies of the genus Cicindela (Coleoptera, Cicindelidae). American Museum Novitates 1458:1–6 [AMNH Digital Library pdf].

© Ted C. MacRae 2017

Posted in Cicindelidae, Coleoptera | Tagged , , , , , , , | 5 Comments

New paper: Buprestidae from El Limón de Cuauchichinola, Mexico

A new paper (of which I am a co-author), published in the latest issue of The Pan-Pacific Entomologist, gives the results of a systematic survey of Buprestidae in a tropical deciduous forest at El Limón de Cuauchichinola, municipality of Tepalcingo, in Morelos, Mexico. Four subfamilies, 12 tribes, 19 genera, and 73 species were recorded, with the genera Agrilus Curtis, 1825, Chrysobothris Eschescholtz, 1829, and Acmaeodera Eschscholtz, 1829 having the greatest number of species. We estimate that only 68% of buprestid species occurring in the forest were recorded. An appendix lists the species, of which eight represent new records for the Sierra de Huautla Biosphere Reserve and two represent new records for the state of Morelos.

Corona-López, A. M., Reza-Pérez, E. V., V. H. Toledo-Hernández, A. Flores-Palacios, T. C. MacRae, R. L. Westcott, H. A. Hespenheide & C. L. Bellamy. 2017. Diversity of Buprestidae (Coleoptera) from El Limón de Cuauchichinola, Tepalcingo, Morelos, Mexico. The Pan-Pacific Entomologist 93(2):71–83 [pdf].

© Ted C. MacRae 2017

Posted in Buprestidae, Coleoptera | Tagged | 1 Comment

Cicindela formosa pigmentosignata (the “reddish-green sand tiger beetle”)

In my last post, I discussed Cicindela scutellaris rugata, the so-called “wrinkled fetiger beetle” (Erwin & Pearson 2008)—one of several geographically restricted subspecies of a more widespread and geographically variable species. This was not the only goal of the day, however, as I was also hoping to see a second geographically restricted subspecies—Cicindela formosa pigmentosignata, the “reddish-green sand tiger beetle (Erwin & Pearson 2008). The parent species of these two species show remarkably similar patterns of distribution, habits, and diversification—both occur most commonly as nominotypical subspecies in the Great Plains but have also expanded eastward and diverged there and around the periphery of their range into a number of distinctive subspecies; both favor deep, dry sand habitats without standing water; and both exhibit a “spring/fall” life history where sexually immature adults emerge in fall, pass the winter in burrows, and emerge again in spring ready to mate and lay eggs. In fact, these two species are so inextricably linked to each other that throughout most of their range, where one is found usually so is the other, and where one is represented by a distinctive subspecies so is the other. The main exception to this is in the far southeastern U.S., where C. scutellaris has established as the subspecies C. s. unicolor in sandy forest openings but C. formosa has not.

Cicindela formosa pigmentosignata

Cicindela formosa pigmentosignata W. Horn, 1930—Van Zandt Co., Texas

Cicindela formosa currently contains five recognized subspecies (Pearson et al. 2006)—the nominate subspecies (big sand tiger beetle) found west of Missouri (and which I’ve photographed in Nebraska), C. f. generosa (eastern sand tiger beetle) found in Missouri (photographed here and here) and further east, C. f. gibsoni (Gibson’s sand tiger beetle) found in Colorado and Manitoba (the consubspecificity of these two widely disjunct populations currently being the subject of debate), C. f. rutilovirescens (Mescalero sand tiger beetle) found in New Mexico (and which I’ve seen and collected a single specimen, but before my days as a photographer), and this one: C. f. pigmentosignata from eastern Texas and neighboring areas of Arkansas and Louisiana. Rumpp (1986) proposed that the parent species, C. formosa, radiated in central North America, adapting to barren sand conditions, dispersing along sand hills and major river systems into other areas, and ultimately diverging into the currently recognized subspecies.

Cicindela formosa pigmentosignata

Adults commonly exhibit “shade seeking” behavior during the hotter parts of the day.

As with C. s. rugata, I found this subspecies in a couple of old, rural cemeteries in eastern Texas (Henderson and Van Zandt Counties)—the photos shown here are from the second locality and were taken during the afternoon in the heat of the day. Because of this the beetles were quite wary and difficult to approach, but they also exhibited much more photogenic behaviors related to thermoregulation such as stilting and shade seeking. As I stalked the beetles through the deep, dry sand trying to get photographs, I was reminded yet again of why I love this species of tiger beetle so much—their bulk; their bulging eyes; their long, looping escape flights that end with a comical bounce and tumble, only to end up on their feet and facing their pursuer. These beetles are loaded with personality and behavioral charisma, and this particular subspecies with its brilliant and almost completely immaculate reddish-purple elytra and vividly contrasting blue-green legs and sides was an especially treasured sight to behold (especially after failing in my first attempt to find it back in 2012).

Cicindela formosa pigmentosignata

“Stilting” is another thermoregulatory behavior designed to raise the body up off the hot sand.

I am reasonably satisfied with these photos, although I would have liked to have gotten at least one without some part of the beetle obscured by foliage. That said, I now prefer some foliage in my tiger beetle photos, as I think it adds a bit of perspective, and when it is in the context of thermoregulatory behavior so much the better. And so, having now gotten good field photographs of this subspecies I am motivated more than ever to return to the Mescalero Sand Dunes in New Mexico and find and photograph C. f. rutilovirescens to complete my photographic “collection” of subspecies of the sand tiger beetle. Of course, by then I will probably be sufficiently dissatisfied with my existing photos of the other subspecies (already so with those of C. f. gibsoni due to excessively cropped compositions) that I will want to do the same with each of them as well. Such is the curse—and the blessing—of the insect photographer!

REFERENCES:

Erwin, T. L. & D. L. Pearson. 2008. A Treatise on the Western Hemisphere Caraboidea (Coleoptera). Their classification, distributions, and ways of life. Volume II (Carabidae-Nebriiformes 2-Cicindelitae). Pensoft Series Faunistica 84. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia, 400 pp [Amazon descriptionbook review].

Pearson, D. L., C. B. Knisley & C. J. Kazilek. 2006. A Field Guide to the Tiger Beetles of the United States and Canada. Oxford University Press, New York, 227 pp. [Oxford description].

Rumpp, N. L. 1986. Two new tiger beetles of the genus Cicindela from western United States (Cicindelidae: Coleoptera). Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 85(3):139–151 [Biodiversity Heritage Library pdf].

© Ted C. MacRae 2016

Posted in Coleoptera | 6 Comments

Cicindela scutellaris rugata (the “wrinkled tiger beetle”)

During last year’s Fall Tiger Beetle Collecting Trip, I visited several rural cemeteries in northeastern Texas. No, this was not a diversion from my beetle collecting—cemeteries in rural areas can be great places to look for tiger beetles because they tend to be lightly managed parcels of land of low agricultural value, thus retaining to some degree the character of the original landscape. In this case, the cemeteries I visited were located in the northern part of Texas’ Post Oak Savannah, a transitional ecoregion with uplands characterized by deep sandy soils supporting native bunchgrasses and scattered post oaks. It is the open, sandy areas in this region where distinctive subspecific populations of two more broadly distributed tiger beetles can be found—Cicindela scutellaris rugata and Cicindela formosa pigmentosignata. One location where I looked for them was an old cemetery in Henderson County. Within minutes of stepping out of the car, I found the first subspecies—unmistakable by its solid shiny blue coloration.

Cicindela scutellaris rugata

Cicindela scutellaris rugata Vaurie, 1950—Henderson Co., Texas

Cicindela scutellaris rugata, dubbed the “wrinkled tiger beetle” by Erwin & Pearson (2008), is one of seven recognized subspecies of this widely distributed species that shows greater geographical variation than any other species of tiger beetle in North America (Pearson et al. 2006). Across its range the species is found in deep, dry sand habitats that are fully exposed to the sun and lack any standing water. Except in the far southeastern U.S., this species is often found in association with C. formosa (although in Missouri I have noted that C. scutellaris occurs slightly earlier in the spring and slightly later in the fall—perhaps at least in part to avoid direct competition with and possibly even predation by that larger species).

Cicindela scutellaris rugata

The “wrinkled tiger beetle” exhibits solid blue to blue-green coloration with no maculations.

This subspecies is similar in appearance to C. s. unicolor, distributed across the southeastern U.S. and separated from C. s. rugata by the Mississippi River floodplain—both are shiny blue to blue-green in coloration and exhibit no maculations on the elytra. However, C. s. rugata has a more wrinkled pronotum (hence, the subspecific epithet) and smoother head, while C. s. unicolor has a smoother pronotum and more wrinkled head. Another subspecies, C. s. flavoviridis, shares this surface sculpturing but differs in having the elytra colored lighter yellow-green—in this sense C. s. rugata can be considered intermediate between C. s. unicolor to the east and C. s. flavoviridis to the west (Vaurie 1950). Cicindela s. rugata can also be confused with immaculate forms of C. sexguttata (six-spotted tiger beetle), but the latter is less robust with a more tapered posterior, and both sexes of C. sexguttata have a whitish labrum (in all subspecies of C. scutellaris only males have a white labrum, while females have a dark to black labrum).

Cicindela scutellaris rugata

The more wrinkled pronotum and smoother head distinguishes C. s. rugata from C. s. unicolor.

As I have noted for other C. scutellaris subspecies that I have encountered (nominate as well as C. s. leconteiC. s. yampae, and Missouri’s intergrade population of C. s. unicolorC. s. lecontei), adults were fairly abundant during the late morning hours but largely disappeared during the afternoon, probably having dug into their burrows to escape the midday heat (although I did not search for the burrows and dig them out as I have done for the other mentioned subspecies). I did see a very few individuals at another sandy cemetery in neighboring Van Zandt Co. that I visited later in the afternoon (and at both locations I found the stunning C. formosa pigmentosignata—that will be the subject of another post).

REFERENCES:

Erwin, T. L. & D. L. Pearson. 2008. A Treatise on the Western Hemisphere Caraboidea (Coleoptera). Their classification, distributions, and ways of life. Volume II (Carabidae-Nebriiformes 2-Cicindelitae). Pensoft Series Faunistica 84. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia, 400 pp [Amazon descriptionbook review].

Pearson, D. L., C. B. Knisley & C. J. Kazilek. 2006. A Field Guide to the Tiger Beetles of the United States and Canada. Oxford University Press, New York, 227 pp. [Oxford description].

Vaurie, P. 1950. Four new subspecies of the genus Cicindela (Coleoptera, Cicindelidae). American Museum Novitates 1458:1–6 [AMNH Digital Library pdf].

© Ted C. MacRae 2016

Posted in Cicindelidae, Coleoptera | Tagged , , , , , | 9 Comments

The “black bringer of light”

During last year’s Fall Tiger Beetle Collecting Trip, I spent a day visiting cemeteries in the Post Oak Savannah region of northeastern Texas to look for tiger beetles associated with open sand in and around the cemeteries. It had been a good day, and I thought I would try to squeeze in one more visit to a locality I had visited earlier in the day. By the time I arrived at Sand Flat Cemetery in Henderson Co., however, it was almost 6 p.m.—the sun was still up, but the shadows were long and no tiger beetles were found. Not all insects, however, are so quick to turn in as tiger beetles, so I lingered for awhile and eventually found an area where several large bee flies (family Bombyliidae) were seen flying and briefly perching on the ground or the tips of plains snakecotton (Froelichia floridana). Since this was the last stop of the day and there were no tiger beetles to demand my attention, I spent a fair bit of time trying to photograph these very skittish flies and ended up with photos of two different individuals that I was happy with.

Poecilanthrax lucifer

Poecilanthrax lucifer (Fabricius, 1775)—Sand Flat Cemetery, Henderson Co., Texas

Alex Harman was the first to suggest they might represent the species Poecilanthrax lucifer based on a quick iPhone photo that I posted on Facebook, a hunch that was eventually confirmed by Bishop Museum dipterist Neil Evenhuis based on these photos sent to him by e-mail. Poecilanthrax  is a strictly North American (sensu lato) genus that, at the time of its last revision by Painter & Hall (1960), contained 35 species. Although distributed from Canada south through Central America, the greatest abundance of species and individuals is found in the Great Basin region, and, so far as is known, the larvae develop as parasites inside caterpillars of various cutworms and armyworms (family Noctuidae).

Poecilanthrax lucifer

Adults were found perching on the flowers of plains snakecotton (Froelichia floridana)

Poecilanthrax lucifer is one of the more widely distributed species in the genus, occurring predominantly in the West Indies and southern Gulf States but also ranging south into Central America and north into Arkansas and southern Illinois. It is distinguished from other species in the genus by its conspicuous black and yellow tomentose (densely covered with short matted woolly hairs) crossbands on the abdomen and the bases of the larger veins yellow or tan and contrasting with the remainder of the wing color pattern.

Poecilanthrax lucifer

Black and yellow tomentose abdominal bands and yellow/tan larger wing veins distinguish this species.

Like other species in the genus, P. lucifer is known to parasitize noctuid caterpillars, having been reared from fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and exhibiting parasitism rates of up to 25%. This species is unique in the genus, however, in that it has also been reported as a hyperparasite (parasite of a parasite) of Myzine haemorrhoidalis (family Tiphiidae), a primary parasite of white grubs (genus Phyllophaga) in Puerto Rico. The life histories of many species in the genus remain unknown, however, so perhaps other species in the genus will eventually be found to act as hyperparasites as well. All species of Poecilanthrax appear to be univoltine (one generation per year) in natural habitats; however, P. lucifer and a few others that frequent agricultural areas have been found to become facultatively bivoltine or multivoltine due to the extended seasonal availability of pest caterpillars that often occur in these situations.

Poecilanthrax lucifer

“Satanic deadly disease” or “black bringer of light”?

The scientific name of Poecilanthrax lucifer is perhaps one of the more ominous sounding names I’ve encountered. “Anthrax” is, of course, commonly associated with the often deadly infectious bacterial disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, while “lucifer” is none other than Satan himself! However, I suspect that the name of the genus refers not to the disease, but rather its original Greek meaning of “charcoal” in reference to the often black color of the adult flies. Likewise, the original Latin meaning of the word “Lucifer” is “morning star” or “Venus” when used as a noun and “light-bringing” when used as an adjective—only after a series of corruptions through repeated transcriptions and translations of the Bible did it become a name synonymous with the Devil. Thus, a name that could be interpreted as “Satanic deadly disease” might actually mean the “black bringer of light”.

REFERENCE:

Painter, R. H. & J. C. Hall. 1960. A monograph of the genus Poecilanthrax (Diptera: Bombyliidae). Kansas State University of Agriculture and Applied Science, Agricultural Experiment Station, Technical Bulletin 106, 132 pp. [HathiTrust pdf].

© Ted C. MacRae 2016

Posted in Bombyliidae, Diptera | Tagged , , , , , , , | 6 Comments